Workers in conference room
Photo by Christina @ wocintechchat.com on Unsplash

In January 2020, Educational Researcher published an article by Joseph A. Rios, Guangming Ling, Robert Pugh, Dovid Becker, and Adam Bacall titled “Identifying critical 21st-century skills for workplace success: A content analysis of job advertisements.” Here is their definition of 21st-century skills: “a combination of cognitive (e.g., nonroutine problem solving, critical thinking, metacognition), interpersonal (i.e., social), and intrapersonal (i.e., emotional, self-regulatory) skills that are malleable (i.e., potentially responsive to intervention) and relatively stable over time in the absence of exogenous forces (e.g., intentional intervention, life events, changes in social roles)” (p. 1). They note that today’s workers need a broad skill set to deal with the demands of technological advances and globalized workforce, but employers have criticized recent college graduates for lacking these necessary skills when they enter the workforce.

In this article, the authors try to identify these 21st-century skills through a different approach than is normally implemented. They note that previous researchers identified workplace skills in three ways: (1) relying on theorists; (2) job analyses; and (3) employer surveys. As an alternative approach, the conducted a content analysis of online job advertisements posted on Careerbuilder.com and Collegerecruiter.com.

Out of 141,941 job advertisements that they examined, they found that the five most requested fields were business (25%), accounting (14%), engineering (13%), computer science (11%), and nursing (6%). They also found that 70% of advertisements requested at least one 21st-century skill and that an average of 1.69 unique skills were mentioned in these advertisements.

The five most highly requested skills were the following:

  1. Oral communication (28%)
  2. Written communication (23%)
  3. Collaboration (22%)
  4. Problem solving (19%)
  5. Communication skills (14%)

Of course, “communication skills” could be broken down into oral or written communication skills, which would push their percentages even higher.

Other skills mentioned were social intelligence (12%) and self-direction (10%), followed by professionalism, creativity, adaptability, service orientation, continual learning, and cultural sensitivity.

Posted by: Gregory Linton | 07/09/2020

What does it take to be a “master teacher”?

At the start of a new term, it can be helpful for instructors to conduct a self-examination and make plans for improving their excellence in teaching. A useful tool for this purpose is the Teacher Behavior Checklist. In 2002, a study was published that identified twenty-eight behaviors of a “master teacher,” which the authors compiled as a Teacher Behavior Checklist (TBC). A master teacher is a teacher from whom students have learned much and enjoyed the learning process. This study was the result of multiple surveys of undergraduate students and faculty members. The behaviors could be categorized into two larger categories identified by Joseph Lowman in Mastering the Techniques of Teaching: (1) Caring and Supportive Behaviors and (2) Professional Competency and Communication Skills. The Teacher Behavior Checklist has since been used as student evaluation of teaching, and many studies have confirmed its validity and utility in assessing an instructor’s teaching effectiveness.

In these studies, students and faculty agreed on the following six qualities that were most important for excellent teaching:

  • Being knowledgeable
  • Being enthusiastic
  • Being respectful
  • Having realistic expectations
  • Being approachable and personable
  • Being creative and interesting

In the Winter 2018 volume of New Directions for Teaching and Learning, Kirby, Busler, Keeley, and Buskist provided a concise history and description of the TBC (pp. 21-29). Here is the full checklist:

  1. Accessible (posts office hours, gives out phone number, and e-mail information)
  2. Approachable/personable (smiles, greets students, initiates conversations, invites questions, responds respectfully to student comments)
  3. Authoritative (establishes clear course rules; maintains classroom order; speaks in a loud, strong voice)
  4. Confident (speaks clearly, makes eye contact, and answers questions correctly)
  5. Creative and interesting (experiments with teaching methods; uses technological devices to support and enhance lectures; uses interesting, relevant, and personal examples; not monotone)
  6. Effective communicator (speaks clearly/loudly; uses precise English; gives clear, compelling examples)
  7. Encourages and cares for students (provides praise for good student work, helps students who need it, offers bonus points and extra credit, and knows student names)
  8. Enthusiastic about teaching and about topic (smiles during class, prepares interesting class activities, uses gestures and expressions of emotion to emphasize important points, and arrives on time for class)
  9. Establishes daily and academic term goals (prepares/follows the syllabus and has goals for each class)
  10. Flexible/open-minded (changes calendar of course events when necessary, will meet at hours outside of office hours, pays attention to students when they state their opinions, accepts criticism from others, and allows students to do make-up work when appropriate)
  11. Good listener (does not interrupt students while they are talking, maintains eye contact, and asks questions about points that students are making)
  12. Happy/positive attitude/humorous (tells jokes and funny stories, laughs with students)
  13. Humble (admits mistakes, never brags, and does not take credit for others’ successes)
  14. Knowledgeable about subject matter (easily answers students’ questions, does not read straight from the book or notes, and uses clear and understandable examples)
  15. Prepared (brings necessary materials to class, is never late for class, provides outlines of class discussion)
  16. Presents current information (relates topic to current, real-life situations; uses recent videos, magazines, and newspapers to demonstrate points; talks about current topics; uses new or recent texts)
  17. Professional (dresses nicely [neat and clean shoes, slacks, blouses, dresses, shirts, ties] and no profanity)
  18. Promotes class discussion (asks controversial or challenging questions during class, gives points for class participation, involves students in group activities during class)
  19. Promotes critical thinking/intellectually stimulating (asks thoughtful questions during class, uses essay questions on tests and quizzes, assigns homework, and holds group discussions/activities)
  20. Provides constructive feedback (writes comments on returned work, answers students’ questions, and gives advice on test-taking)
  21. Punctuality/manages class time (arrives to class on time/early, dismisses class on time, presents relevant materials in class, leaves time for questions, keeps appointments, returns work in a timely way)
  22. Rapport (makes class laugh through jokes and funny stories, initiates and maintains class discussions, knows student names, interacts with students before and after class)
  23. Realistic expectations of students/fair testing and grading (covers material to be tested during class, writes relevant test questions, does not overload students with reading, teaches at an appropriate level for the majority of students in the course, curves grades when appropriate)
  24. Respectful (does not humiliate or embarrass students in class, is polite to students [says thank you and please, etc.], does not interrupt students while they are talking, does not talk down to students)
  25. Sensitive and persistent (makes sure students understand material before moving to new material, holds extra study sessions, repeats information when necessary, asks questions to check student understanding)
  26. Strives to be a better teacher (requests feedback on his/her teaching ability from students, continues learning [attends workshops, etc. on teaching], and uses new teaching methods)
  27. Technologically competent (knows now to use a computer, knows how to use e-mail with students, knows how to use overheads during class, has a Web page for classes)
  28. Understanding (accepts legitimate excuses for missing class or coursework, is available before/after class to answer questions, does not lose temper at students, takes extra time to discuss difficult concepts)
Posted by: Gregory Linton | 06/17/2020

College completion rates rose in fall 2019

On December 10, the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center released its annual report on college completion rates. Their methodology is unique in that they track students who finish at an institution other than the one at which they first enrolled. This provides a more accurate picture of how many students who start college end up finishing within six years. This year’s report, which focuses on the 2013 entering cohort, indicates some interesting trends, as I summarize below:

  • The overall college completion rate has increased by seven percentage points in the last for yours (52.9% to 59.7%).
  • Completion rates increased for the 2013 cohort across all types of starting institutions.
  • The college completion rate for students who started at a profit nonprofit institution was 76.5%, a 5.1-point increase from the low of 71.5% for the 2009 cohort.
  • The 2013 cohort consisted of 78.2% traditional age students (<21) and 11.5% adult learners (age 25 and over). The proportion of adult learners declined by one percentage point from the previous cohort.
  • Initial enrollments at four-year institutions increased slightly while initial enrollments at two-year institutions decreased.
  • 48% of the 2013 cohort were enrolled exclusively full-time, an increase of one percentage point over the previous cohort.
  • Completions at the starting institution increased for each type of starting institution.
  • In every racial/ethnic category, the completion rate for women substantially surpassed the rate for men.
  • African American men had the lowest completion rate (42%).
  • Of the 50 college major fields defined by the U.S. Department of Education, seven fields account for 61% of all bachelor’s degrees awarded: Business, Management, Marketing, and Related Support (18%); Social Sciences (8%); Engineering (8%); Biological and Biomedical Sciences (8%); Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences (8%); Psychology (6%); and Communication, Journalism and Related Programs (6%).

The March 2020 issue of Educational Researcher published an article by Joseph A. Rios, Guangming Ling, Robert Pugh, Dovid Becker, and Adam Bacall entitled “Identifying critical 21st-century skills for workplace success: A content analysis of job advertisements.” Here is their definition of 21st-century skills: “a combination of cognitive (e.g., nonroutine problem solving, critical thinking, metacognition), interpersonal (i.e., social), and intrapersonal (i.e., emotional, self-regulatory) skills that are malleable (i.e., potentially responsive to intervention) and relatively stable over time in the absence of exogenous forces (e.g., intentional intervention, life events, changes in social roles)” (p. 1). They note that today’s workers need a broad skill set to deal with the demands of technological advances and globalized workforce, but employers have criticized recent college graduates for lacking these necessary skills when they enter the workforce.

In this article, the authors try to identify these 21st-century skills through a different approach than is normally implemented. They note that previous researchers identified workplace skills in three ways: (1) relying on theorists; (2) job analyses; and (3) employer surveys. As an alternative approach, they conducted a content analysis of online job advertisements posted on Careerbuilder.com and Collegerecruiter.com.

Out of 141,941 job advertisements that they examined, they found that the five most requested fields were business (25%), accounting (14%), engineering (13%), computer science (11%), and nursing (6%). They also found that 70% of advertisements requested at least one 21st-century skill and that an average of 1.69 unique skills were mentioned in these advertisements.

The five most highly requested skills were the following:

  1. Oral communication (28%)
  2. Written communication (23%)
  3. Collaboration (22%)
  4. Problem solving (19%)
  5. Communication skills (14%)

Of course, “communication skills” could be broken down into oral or written communication skills, which would push their percentages even higher.

Other skills mentioned were social intelligence (12%) and self-direction (10%), followed by professionalism, creativity, adaptability, service orientation, continual learning, and cultural sensitivity.

Posted by: Gregory Linton | 12/12/2019

Higher Ed Quote of the Week

“With the avalanche of new products, new technologies, and new ways of working, workers are going to have to become more creative in order to thrive amidst change.”—Campus Adobe, “Get Hired: The Importance of Creativity and Soft Skills,” p. 4

On November 5, Campus Adobe published a report titled “Get Hired: The Importance of Creativity and Soft Skills.” Some of the content summarizes prior research, but the report also presents new research based on analysis of 2 million job postings and 2 million resumes. Here are some of the key findings:

  • Leading employers identify the top three critical skills for the future workforce as complex problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity.
  • A survey of Generation Z students shows that 85% believe being creative will be essential to their success, and 76% wish there was more of a focus on creativity in the classroom.
  • 97% of employers say that creative problem solving is important for students to learn in school.
  • 69% of educators agree that there is not enough emphasis on creative problem solving in today’s curricula.
  • Job postings in 18 in-demand, growing career fields show that the most highly sought skills are communication (71%), creativity (50%), collaboration (41%), and creative problem solving (15%).
  • However, an examination of 2 million resumes show that fewer than ¼ mention creativity or communication, and only 11% mention collaboration. 1% mention creative problem solving.
  • One conclusion of the study is that educators need to place greater emphasis on developing creative and soft skills so that students can succeed in the workplace.
Posted by: Gregory Linton | 12/05/2019

Higher Ed Quote of the Week: December 2-6

“The business of the college . . . is to prepare for life and not for making a living.”—Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), President, Columbia University

Last week, the National Center for Education Statistics released new data and a set of web tables that presents results from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2019 collection. Here is a selection of enrollment data for fall 2018:

  • 20 million students were enrolled in Title IV institutions.
  • 84.8% were undergraduates, and 15.2% were graduate students.
  • Of those students, 73.2% were enrolled in public institutions, 20.7% were enrolled in private nonprofit institutions, and 6.1% were enrolled in private for-profit institutions.
  • Of the 4.1 million students enrolled in private nonprofit institutions, 68.3% were undergraduates, and 31.7% were graduate students.
  • 16.3% of students (3.3 million) were enrolled exclusively in distance education courses.
  • 65.3% (13 million) were not enrolled in any distance education courses.
  • 69.5% of all students were enrolled in a 4-year institution, and 30.5% were enrolled in a 2-year or less institution.
  • 61.3% of all students were enrolled full-time, and 38.7% were enrolled part-time.
  • 57.1% of all students were women, and 42.9% were men. Women outnumbered men by 2.85 million.
  • Of the 10.9 million undergraduates enrolled in 4-year institutions, 52.2% were White, 16.3% were Hispanic or Latino, 11.5% were Black or African American, 6.5% were Asian, 4.4% were nonresident alien, 4.3% were unknown, 3.9% were 2 or more races, 0.6% were American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.02% were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
  • The retention rate of first-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students in the fall 2017 cohort was 81% for full-time students in 4-year institutions, 49.1% for part-time students in 4-year institutions, 62.6% for full-time students in 2-year institutions, and 45.1% for part-time students in 2-year institutions.
  • The retention rate for full-time students enrolled in 4-year public institutions and 4-year private nonprofit institutions was 81.2% for both groups.

Last week, three new reports were released that provide information about the perceptions of Americans about the value of higher education and about the return on investment of various majors. I will summarize the important points from each report.

The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research

The report published by these organizations is titled “Young Americans’ views on the value of higher education.” The report summarizes the results of interviews conducted between August 7 and September 9, 2019, with 265 teens age 13-17 and 1,036 young adults age 18-29. Some of the statistics are broken down between those two groups, and some are based on the total aggregate. Many of the findings are also disaggregated based on political affiliation and household income. Here are some of the key findings:

  • 61% of teens and 42% of young adults plan to attend or have attended a four-year college.
  • 77% of teens and 55% of young adults plan to or have already taken out student loans.
  • 62% of young people are concerned about making enough money to earn a good living.
  • Only 22% of young people think there are more disadvantages than advantages of attending a four-year college.
  • 70% of teens say their parents have indicated they will help pay for college tuition, but only 52% of young adults report getting this help.
  • More affluent young Americans are more likely to attend or plan to attend a four-year college.

Strada Education Group & Gallup

The report published by these organizations is titled “Changing the value equation of higher education.” Gallup interviewed 340,000 people from all education pathways to create a dataset so large and deep that educators, policymakers, and employers can take action on the results. This Education Consumer Survey considered two dimensions: cost value (whether consumers believe their education was worth the cost) and career value (whether consumers believe their education made them an attractive job candidate). Here are some of the findings from this report:

  • Consumers value their education when they clearly see its connection to a career.
  • Consumers report higher rates of value for vocational and technical programs and graduate degrees than the terminal bachelor’s degree. Only 40% who received a terminal bachelor’s degree believe it was worth the cost, and only 48% believe it made them an attractive job candidate.
  • With a bachelor’s degree, consumers value majors that are closely aligned with specific careers, such as health care, engineering, education, and computer science.
  • Only 34% of liberal arts graduates strongly agreed their degree was worth the expense, and 36% strongly agreed it would benefit their careers.
  • Consumers in any pathway see greater value when they see the relevance of their coursework in their work and day-to-day life.

U.S. Department of Education

Last Wednesday, the U.S. Department of Education published additional data on the College Scorecard that allows consumers to compare student debt and first-year of earnings of graduates by major or graduate degree program at 4,400 institutions of higher learning in America that receive Title IV funds. Previously, the College Scorecard included only schoolwide statistics on debt and earnings of graduates. This additional information allows consumers to consider the return on investment for each program at each institution.

To protect students’ privacy, the government isn’t publishing data on programs with few students. For programs making the cut, the data show debt loads at graduation for students who finished college in the 2016 and 2017 school years. It also reflects how much students who graduated during the 2015 and 2016 school years earned a year after leaving school, excluding those who re-enrolled. The data were drawn from the Internal Revenue Service and federal student loan data.

According to the Wall Street Journal, at most programs graduates typically earn more in their first year of employment than what they borrowed in total for their degree. However, 15% of programs had graduates carrying debt greater than income, and 2% had graduates who owed more than twice their annual salaries.

Posted by: Gregory Linton | 11/25/2019

Higher Ed Quote of the Week: November 25-29

“Consumers identified several areas their colleges and universities can focus on to increase value: When consumers find their courses are relevant to work, and when they have high-quality, applied-learning experiences and excellent career and academic advising, they see more value in their education.”—Strada Education Network & Gallup, “Changing the value equation for higher education,” p.7

Posted by: Gregory Linton | 11/22/2019

Higher Ed Quote of the Week: November 18-22

“As college costs and student loan debt continue to rise precipitously, more people are wondering if college is worth it. Based on earnings alone, yes, it is. On average, workers with a bachelor’s degree make 80 percent more than workers with no more than a high school diploma.”—Anthony P. Carnevale, Ban Cheah, and Martin Van Der Werf, “A first try at ROI: Ranking 4,500 colleges,” p. 1

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